Shanghai Planetarium, Shanghai, China
Shanghai Planetarium is a proposed astronomy and planetary science museum, which will be part of the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum. The planetarium will be located in Shanghai's Lingang district, close to the central business district.
Ennead Architects won an international competition to design the iconic structure to highlight the scientific and technological prowess of the Shanghai museum, as well as provide the city with a distinct building.
The planetarium is the second in China, and set to be one of the biggest and most advanced planetariums in the world.
Construction of the planetarium began in November 2016 and is expected to be completed by 2020.
Shanghai planetarium design details
The design is an ode to China's history of autonomy and its plans for future space explorations as well as a testament to the continuity of time and space. The proposed design draws inspiration from the past and simultaneously presents a modern building.
Astronomical principles such as orbital motion are evident in the museum design and its related infrastructure. The overall design includes three structural features taking the form of heavenly bodies, namely the oculus, the inverted dome and the sphere.
The elements of the museum track the sun, moon and stars through their distinct design, which imitates astronomical instruments and acts as a reminder of the relation between time and celestial movement.
The planetarium's layout, its programme and circulation are all centred on the theme of orbital movement. The visitors' movement through the expansive galleries and the three main features are designed to echo the same theme to enhance the experience in the planetarium.
Multiple long stretches formed by the extensive curving lines and the large interiors of the museum are a visible feature in the proposed design.
The Oculus feature at Shanghai planetarium
The oculus is a prominent feature located above the museum's main entry area. It appears to be hanging from the cantilevered galleries and acts as a sundial for the building. Sunlight on the ground opposite the entrance and the reflecting pool is tracked by the oculus to represent the passage of time.
The feature has been designed to reflect the changes occurring in the sun's altitude over a period of time through the guiding circle of sunlight on the ground, which adjusts to changes in both time and year. The moon's movements are also studied during important Chinese festivals and holidays occurring in a lunar calendar.
The inverted dome
The inverted dome is located at the top of the central atrium, where all the galleries are arranged.
The visitors at the planetarium have to pass through the multi-storey atrium, which controls the circulation and is also designed with a spiralling ramp extending below the dome.
The dome offers a spectacular and continuous view of the day and night sky. View from the dome is focused towards the celestial bodies and increases the effect of the planetarium's virtual star show. The horizon is not visible from the dome to restrict the visitors' view to the sky.
A glass entry walk forms the passage into the dome and is positioned towards the north. At noon every day, the sunlight luminates the walkway, making it visible to the museum below.
The sphere has been designed as the sun of the planetarium and is suspended from the roof. It is viewed as a weightless mass by the visitors from below. The planetarium's theatre is contained in the sphere.
The sphere is surrounded by an uninterrupted skyline allowing the sunlight to shine through to monitor the passage of time. As an indicator of summer solstice, a complete circular ring appears during the noon time at the sphere.
Facilities at the Shanghai Planetarium
The planetarium is spread across 38,000m² (409,000ft²) on a large stretch of green zone. An exterior exhibitory, a 24m-high solar telescope and an IMAX theatre are part of the structure.
The visitors will be able to enjoy activities at a youth observation camp and observatory, permanent and temporary exhibition galleries, a 21m-diameter digital sky theatre, an 18m-diameter optical planetarium and an education and research centre.
Key players involved
The Shanghai Institute of Architectural Design and Research will provide services related to MEP, life safety and landscape. LERA has been selected to work on the structural aspect of the building.
Lighting will be provided by Brandston Partnership, while museum exhibits will be designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates.